CPD Article: Introduction to Air Admittance Valves (AAVs)

Introduction to Air Admittance Valves (AAVs)

Whilst there is a growing awareness and knowledge of the ever-increasing risks to health from the drainage system, it is often given little thought – effectively being out of sight and out of mind – despite it being one of the few building systems that is integrated throughout the whole building. The water trap seal is the only barrier between the drainage system and the living and/or working space; it is therefore essential that this is maintained at all times. The loss of a trap seal results in unwanted smells, noise and, importantly, the risk of pathogens/disease spreading from the drainage system into the inhabited space. Whilst these are unpleasant in a domestic environment, there are serious health and safety concerns in a commercial environment, where the building owners, landlords and/or occupiers have a duty of care.

What mostly affects water trap seals?

Drainage venting is all about preventing the system pressure from exceeding -400Pa (40mm Wg), i.e. the pressure at which water trap seals will be affected. This would be mostly due to pressure fluctuations (self siphonage, induced siphonage, positive pressure and wind effect) and thermal depletion.

A negative pressure transient occurs when there is a discharge of the fixture to which the trap seal is connected. This can have the effect of reducing the trap seal (or pulling the trap). This occurs as the momentum acquired by the waste passes through the fixture and down the trap seal. This momentum is transferred directly into the trap seal and trap seal loss occurs. This is commonly known as ‘self siphonage’.

Other fixtures discharging in the building can also affect the trap seal. This occurs when there is a pressure fluctuation caused by a discharge of another fixture in the system other than the fixture to which the trap is connected. This is commonly known as ‘induced siphonage’, which is very common in multi-storey/multi-use buildings.

Key venting components of a drainage system

  1. Trap venting: Venting of a single fixture.
  2. Group venting: Venting of a group of fixtures, using one vent on the wet side of the last fixture.
  3. Branch venting: Ventilating pipe connected to a branch discharge pipe.
  4. Stack venting: Extension of the vertical discharge pipe above the highest branch discharge pipe connection that terminates at an end, open to atmosphere or with an AAV.
  5. Ventilating stack: Main vertical ventilating pipe, connected to the discharge stack to limit pressure fluctuations within the discharge stack.
  6. Drain venting: Venting near the end of a main drain or branch drain, the vent being installed on the wet-side of the last fixture.

A combination of the above can be used on larger projects, but these methods have limitations, as open vents require penetrations through the roof to allow the atmospheric air to balance the pressure transients within the sanitary drainage system.

The larger or more complex the system, the longer it takes for the vent at the top of the building takes to react, leading to depletion of the water trap seals. You know when this occurs by just watching and listening. For example, if you see the water in the WC pulling, or listen to the P-trap gurgling, this is an indication venting is inadequate as the traps are being pulled due to the pressure in the system.

Alternatively, Air Admittance Valves (AAVs) can be installed at the Point of Need (PON), near the trap seals that require protection. This has the benefit of eliminating the vent pipe network, the space required and the roof penetrations.

What is an AAV?

An AAV is a valve that limits pressure fluctuations within the sanitary drainage system by allowing air to enter the system but not to escape. It draws the air, which is required to maintain the trap seals, from the living space where it is installed.

An AAV should open before -75 Pa, allowing air into the system and relieving the negative transient pressure. This keeps the pressures in the system for discharges between 0 and -250 Pa. If the system goes above these pressures, this can lead to the depletion of the trap seals. A typical P-trap will suck dry in less than 1 second if the pressure in the system reaches above -500pa (50mm Wg).

AAVs work by utilizing a reverse lift membrane. When there is water movement in the system the valve will open; when the movement of water stops, the AAV will seal airtight by gravity. AAVs have the effect of slowing down pressure transients in the building and providing air at the PON, eliminating the risk of pathogens leaving the sanitary drainage system and entering the living and/or working space. Most important is that the AAVs are sealed airtight when there is no movement of air in the system.

Critical aspects of an AAV’s operation

  1. The need to respond quickly to changes in pressure, every time.
  2. The necessity to seal completely tight with no leakage whatsoever.
  3. Longevity of operation; as long as the drainage system itself.

What to look for in a good AAV

Choosing the correct AAV is important. In the UK AAVs must conform to BS EN 12380 and must display the correct information and the CE mark. To further ensure that the AAV is of verified appropriate quality, it is recommended that the valves also have a third party accreditation, for example, a BBA certificate or KEYMARK approval. This provides reassurance that the AAV has undergone rigorous testing at an external testing institute and are routinely assessed.

AAVs that utilize springs, O-rings or clip fit lids should be avoided, as these generally inevitably lead to leakage at low pressures.

Under BS EN 12380 AAVs are rated for performance. An ‘A’ rated AAV can be installed up to 1 metre below the appliance’s flood level and a ‘I’ rated AAV has been proven to operate in extreme temperatures from -20°C to +60°C. Having an AAV that meets the AI or the AII classification will ensure the product is of sufficient quality and performance to provide full protection.

AAV Classification under BS EN 12380
Determining Factor Range/Position Designation
Permitted to be located below
flood level of connected appliances
YES A
NO B
Temperature -20°C to +60°C
0°C to +60°C
0°C to +20°C
I
II
III

Written by Steve White, Studor Technical Director

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When Art Meets Science…

There are times when different disciplines and arts converge with each other to provide outstanding results – the work of the talented Slovenian-born Dr Vesna Petresin, BSc PhD FRSA is one such example, with a lot of the subjects she uses in her visual and sound pieces and performances being inspired by fluid dynamics.

Vesna first met the founders of Studor (STUre and DORis Ericson) when Heriot-Watt University hosted the CIB’s 1999 W062 Symposium on Water Supply and Drainage in Buildings, in which Vesna’s father, Dr Eugen Petresin of the University of Maribor, presented his research. A relationship which has been maintained ever since, with Sture and Doris following her artistic career over the years. Studor was therefore happy to sponsor an audio-visual production of Vesna’s work at the 2017 Transmediale international festival in Berlin as part of the Art Science Node selection, taking place at the German Patent Bureau headquarters.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vesna’s piece of work titled “The Dreams Our Things Are Made Of” was well-received by leading members of the German science, research & innovation, technology and cultural sectors, along with international guests. The overall show was a great success which resulted in the German Patent Bureau giving the organisations, the Art Science Node, exclusive rights to curate events in their premises both in Berlin and in Munich – a great honour indeed!

Throughout the development of her artistic career, Vesna has also remained involved with her scientific career. Following the 2001 W062 Symposium on Water Supply and Drainage in Buildings, which was organised in Portoroz, Slovenia by Vesna’s parents, her father (Dr Eugen Petresin exchanged research and discussed collaboration with Sture and Vesna herself has been a research assistant to her father and his teams (in Slovenia, UK and Germany), for over 20 years. Since 2003 she has also been a Research Fellow to Cecil Balmond, Deputy Chairman of Ove Arup & Partners and, through this collaboration, she has met research teams that Studor collaborated with at Arups and Heriot-Watt, being an active advocate of Studor’s innovations and products to the engineering teams she has met. More about Vesna’s successful artistic and scientific careers can be read on her LinkedIn profile.

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Studor – the Innovators, not the Imitators!

The foundation for Studor to lead the industry with drainage ventilation technology was laid by Sture Ericson (co-founder of Studor), when he applied for the patent on his first designed Air Admittance Valve (AAV) – the Bjare Valve – in July 1973. Since the inception of Studor in 1975, this foundation has been continually built on, and over 40 years of research has resulted in the application of numerous patents providing protection to Studor products in over 50 countries worldwide.

This guest blog from Laurent Overath, Intellectual Property Consultant for Cabinet Bede (Studor’s appointed patent attorney) comments on the importance of patent protection and of the correct use of trademarks:


Studor always did value technological innovation. The numerous high quality products that have been marketed in the past clearly demonstrates this.

In order to secure these research efforts, key technological innovations have been subjected to patent protection, whereby Studor was granted exclusivity over the marketing of the newly developed technology.

In parallel with the patent protection, covering the “inside” technology of Studor’s products, a brand or trademark registration strategy is maintained, providing Studor exclusivity over the “outside” use of a range of trademarks such as Maxi-Vent® and P.A.P.A.®, in addition to the “house trademark” Studor®.

Provided that registrations are timely renewed, trademark protection can in principle last infinitely. However, where the trademark would not have been used over a certain period of time, registrations may become cancelled.

In case a protection would be challenged on such basis, Studor will be required to produce sufficient evidence of genuine use to avoid that the registration would become cancelled. Genuine use is use made of the trademark in conformity with the standards of the concerned economic sector, i.e. the sector of drainage ventilation.

Use of a trademark can be evidenced through the submission of various types of documents, such as copies of invoices*, sale offers*, advertisements, award certificates, commercial fairs photographs, etc. (*can be partially anonymised).

For evidence material to be acceptable, it is essential that these make mention of: [1] the trademark; [2] the goods sold under the trademark; [3] the geographic location; as well as [4] an indication on the time of use.

Advertisement and sale actions in a determined country or jurisdiction are generally realised through the intermediary that imports/distributes the Studor products. Therefore, evidence of use consequently resides to a large extent in their hands.

In view of being able to address possible challenges in the future, it is highly recommended to keep an archive of evidence material for each of the Studor trademarks, over a period covering the last five years.


Throughout our history, we have worked hard to ensure that Studor is a name associated with high quality and reliable products – this obviously being of utmost importance when we consider the importance of protecting the trap seals in the drainage system. Consequently, Studor has a zero tolerance policy in relation to patent and trademark infringements and will take any appropriate action.

Studor – over 40 years of expertise, a lifetime of quality!

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World Plumbing Day 2017

march 11, every year… everywhere

Plumbing – Vital to Global Health
Because Every Day is World Plumbing Day

Yes, another year has gone by since the last World Plumbing Day (WPD), and here we are again with the opportunity to “reaffirm our oath to use our collective expertise to safeguard the health of our communities” and to “promote the important role played by the industry“.

To this end, Studor continues to play a key role in educating the industry on the importance of water trap seals for human health – one of the four key elements with which plumbing is associated. Our most recent activity in this area being our “Seeing is Believing” test tower, which demonstrates that not only is the Studor System more than capable of protecting the water trap seals, but also that it out-performs the convention vent pipe system.

One of the other key elements is “water” – a valuable and finite resource that most of us take for granted. It with consideration to this aspect that Studor continues to support the work of  the charity DROP4DROP and would like to share their latest update (a big thank you to the DROP4DROP team!):


In many parts of the world, access to safe, clean drinking water is scarce. 663 million people do not have access to this basic human right. The lack of access to clean water and safe sanitation not only threatens the health of individuals, but impedes social and economic development on a global scale. DROP4DROP works across the globe to provide sustainable sources of clean drinking water to those currently living without.

DROP4DROP is currently working within communities across India and Africa. With research continually undertaken to ensure the most effective technologies are used, DROP4DROP strives to ensure communities have access to a sustainable source of water clean drinking water.

By employing local labourers and involving the community throughout the project process, a sense of pride and ownership is established with every constructed bore-well. Providing maintenance and hygiene education ensures maximum longevity of the well and promotes a positive attitude to hygiene and health.

Thanks to the generosity of Studor, work can continue to provide clean water to those currently living without access. This month DROP4DROP is collaborating with VOX United to deliver a large-scale bore-well restoration scheme across Mozambique. Mozambique has one of the lowest rates of water and sanitation coverage in Sub-Saharan Africa and has the 22nd highest rate of child mortality worldwide (World Health Organization). The country also struggles with floods and earthquakes, which dramatically affects communities’ abilities to collect water. Poverty levels are high; 49% of Mozambicans do not have access to a clean water supply and this figure rises to 62% among the most rural communities. Many Mozambicans rely on collecting water from natural sources such as lakes and dams. Subsequently, the risk suffering from waterborne disease is incredibly high.

As women and children face the responsibility of collecting water for their families, alleviating the time spent travelling to the nearest source ensures children can focus on their education, and women can enter paid employment. By providing Mozambican communities with a functioning bore-well will not only improve the health of the community, but further aid the economic and social development of Mozambique as a country. Alongside the restoration of broken bore-wells, selected members of each community are trained in maintenance and encouraged to monitor the use and productivity of the well, ensuring repairs can continue without DROP4DROP present, securing longevity and success of each community bore-well.  


Links to previous Studor articles on World Plumbing Day:

World Plumbing Day 2016

World Plumbing Day 2015

World Plumbing Day 2014


 

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Rock and roll at Studor’s “Seeing is Believing” test tower

Tony Hill at the base of the test tower

Tony Hill (our Technical Sales Engineer) shares with us his slightly hairy most recent experience at our “seeing is believing” test rig in the UK’s National Lift Tower:

 

The test tower on a calm day!

If you’re hoping to read about The Rolling Stones or The Who then I’m sorry but I’m going to disappoint you – instead I am talking about when “Mother Nature” flexed her muscles (and the tower!) with a show of strength and force by way of “Storm Doris” on Thursday 23 February 2017.

We had a “Seeing is Believing” demonstration booked for the afternoon, despite a few people having cancelled the day before (maybe they heard about the predicted winds!), but in true Studor fashion we decided that “the show must go on”! Around lunch time we could feel the tower rocking and rolling in beat with the wind, and decided that as we had a few minutes to spare before our guests arrived that we’d travel to the very top of the tower.

The journey in the lift should have prepared us with a few side scrapes on the way up in the lift car, but when the doors opened at the top… WOW! Never before in the 2 years I have been at the tower had I ever felt the experience of such a sway! Ed Wright, the National Lift Tower Manager, had an app on his phone which measured the sway at about 2 degrees from centre. We quickly decided being that high and starting to feel land sick from the swaying motion that it was a good idea to get down lower!

What exactly is 2 degrees at that height? Well, thanks to Phil Henry of Polypipe Terrain obviously paying attention to trigonometry classes at school, and the rest of us trying to look clever with the aid of a little friend called Google(!), the calculations were done – we worked out that the top of the tower was moving about 75mm off centre with each gust of wind.

Needless to say, the show went on regardless, and the Studor System once again proved to outperform the standard vented drainage system built to the code in every way, but for the next 24 hours I could still feel the sway in my legs!

I’m sincerely hoping that “Storm Ewan” stays well clear of the tower whilst I’m up there this week…

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From novice to drainage ventilation specialist: Michael Chang

In this blog we bring you something a little bit more personal from our Product Engineer, Michael Chang, who has been a member of the Studor team for over 12 years:

I was a vehicle apprentice technician in Hong Kong before I came to the UK to study for a BEng Mechanical Engineering degree. I knew nothing about plumbing before I joined Studor and it was a big challenge to start with, but I soon developed a sound knowledge base and after a few years I completed an Engineering Design Master’s degree based on Studor’s development projects.

My inquisitive nature and drive for personal development has enabled me to develop an in-depth specialist knowledge of plumbing ventilation. I continue to see plumbing technology as an interesting subject – particularly as it is “behind the scene” but no building would function without it. There are still a lot of people who don’t know why there is a water trap in every fixture unit, although it is a relatively straight forward and simple principle – there is still a lot of education work to do!

Being an engineer, I am always interested in how things work and trying to figure out how things could be improved. I recently took the opportunity to visit the Science Museum in London. What an experience! It was like travelling back in time, and even has one section about the development of toilets (“water closets” (WCs)).

Source: http://theplumber.com/the-men-that-made-the-water-closet/

Cummings’ water closet patented in 1775 (source: see below)

If we go back in time, the “big bang” of plumbing was in the late 15th century: It is quite amazing to consider that since the first WC was invented in 1596 by Sir John Harington for Queen Elizabeth (and later reinvented and patented in 1775 by Alexander Cummings) that the principle is still the same! More about “Toilets, earth closets, and house plumbing” can be read on the site dedicated to The History of Sanitary Sewers.

The drainage system is an essential part of the “digestive system” of the living space in houses and buildings; the behind-the-scenes aspect that most people, including myself before I joined the Studor team 12 years ago, would even think about. It is amazing how something given so little thought is so important!

Quite simply, the water trap is a barrier of water which separates waste water and air from the living space. However, the air pressure on both sides of this water barrier must be balanced – both positively and negatively. You can read more about this in our “The Only Line of Defence” blog.

I find it really rewarding working for a company which is positively contributing towards a healthier living environment for everyone!  It is challenging environment – always trying to figure out how to save time, space, cost, and solve difficulties. Sometimes I find that it is best not need to think too much otherwise it would become complicated – I do believe that “less is more” and “simple is the best”!


Cummings’ water closet image sourced from http://www.theplumber.com/closet.html

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Why the CE Mark alone is not enough…

Studor has remained a pioneer of standards and approvals for drainage ventilation products since being founded in 1975. When European Standard EN12380 was introduced for Air Admittance Valves (AAVs) in drainage systems in 2002, it was natural for Studor to not only to comply with the standard but to take that step further and seek independent validation of conformity. This was achieved by the issue of the DIN CERTCO KEYMARK in 2005 for the Mini-Vent and Maxi-Vent. Studor now holds several KEYMARK certificates across the range of AAV products.

Sören Scholz, Head of Certification Body for “DIN CERTCO Gesellschaft für Konformitätsbewertung mbH”, has kindly taken some time out of his busy schedule to talk to us about DIN CERTCO and the KEYMARK scheme:

 

Who is DIN CERTCO and what do they do?

DIN CERTCO is the certification organisation of TÜV Rheinland and DIN, the German Institute for Standardization, highly regarded internationally for its independence, neutrality, competence and extensive experience in the certification of products, services, qualified enterprises and persons. DIN, as other standards bodies, maintains a comprehensive collection of technical rules that sustain the efficient manufacture, testing, and assessment of products. DIN promotes the application of standards by its activities in the field of conformity assessment. Testing and assessment can take various forms: from the supplier’s declaration of conformity to third-party assessment, from proto-type-testing to type examination, or the assessment of a quality or environmental management system. With its network of partners, DIN CERTCO offers certification services that adapt flexibly to specific requirements. As a result, the proof of conformity provided exactly matches the scope deemed necessary.  Since 2015, the empowerment of certification bodies, the administration of the KEYMARK, and the management on behalf of CEN is assumed by DIN CERTCO as the KEYMARK Management Organization (KMO).

What is your role in DIN CERTCO?

I am the Head of Certification Body at DIN CERTCO. We were anxious to extend the certification business at DIN CERTCO in the area of heating and air-conditioning products, although for these kinds of products the certification has a long tradition in Germany. Together with the interested parties we develop specific certification schemes and implement them in addition to the relevant standard(s). Our DIN certifications help specialist planners, installers, builder/owners in the public and private sectors in the decision-making process. We think that the voluntary product certification becomes more and more important, especially for the growing European market. Therefore a quality mark well known Europe-wide is very important for both, manufacturers/suppliers and consumers.

What is the KEYMARK?

On recommendation of the European Council to improve consumer protection and to counteract the uncertainty of consumers by a mark variety, the European Standards Organisations CEN and CENELEC developed the harmonised European Mark System for standardised products. The KEYMARK is the European quality mark showing the conformity of products with European Standards. A product may only be marked with the KEYMARK if it has been tested and certified before by a neutral, independent and competent body. The factory inspection and Initial Type Testing (ITT), together with regular inspection, constitute an important element of the procedure for granting the KEYMARK. Beyond that, the manufacturer has to carry out a Factory Production Control (FPC) in consideration of the relevant product standards and the elements of EN ISO 9001. This quality system is controlled by an annual inspection and is completed by type testing which takes place at least every 2 years. Today, there are many products using the KEYMARK as a European quality mark, including:

  • Clay pipes
  • Heat pumps
  • Solar thermal products
  • Thermal insulation products for buildings and industrial applications
  • Thermostatic radiator valves
  • … to name just a few!

What is “DIN-Geprüft”?

To improve the confidence in the KEYMARK, it is often granted in combination with marks of existing national certification systems which are based on the conformity with European Standards. In Germany, the KEYMARK is often granted together with the well known Certification Mark “DIN Geprüft” (= DIN Tested). The KEYMARK symbol and “DIN Geprüft” together form the KEYMARK certification.

What’s wrong with just using the CE mark?

The CE mark is basically a self-declaration. There are strict requirements a manufacturer must comply with in order to apply the CE mark, but in most cases, there is no requirement for independent validation that these requirements have been met. The CE mark shows the observance of legal minimum requirements, but the KEYMARK provides a real surplus value for the consumer: tested and certified observance of uniform European Quality Standards.

How does the KEYMARK affect the STUDOR products?

Several of the the Studor Air Admittance Valves have been issued the KEYMARK certificate, which certifies that they conform with the requirements for CE marking as laid out in European Standard EN12380.

Are any other Air Admittance Valves certified with the KEYMARK?

At this time, STUDOR and Geberit are the only manufacturers to be issued with the KEYMARK certificates.

Where can I find more information about DIN CERTCO and the KEYMARK certification?

DIN CERTCO’s website provides detailed information in German and English at www.dincertco.de.

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“Seeing is Believing” Test Tower Roundup

Tony Hill at the base of the test tower

As we come towards the end of another year at our “Seeing is Believing” test tower, here’s an update from Tony Hill (our Technical Sales Engineer) on what’s been happening at the world’s tallest drainage test facility:

 

Not heard of the “Seeing is Believing” test tower? Where have you been the last 2 years? More to the point, why haven’t you been? 🙂

In a nutshell, a visit to our “Seeing is Believing” test tower is an immersive experience in which you can see first-hand how the Studor System out-performs the traditional vent system in maintaining the trap seals and protecting against the negative and positive pressures in the drainage system. Please click through the links at the bottom of this article if you’d like to know more.

This year has been another great success at the tower for both for us at Studor and as an educational trip for consultants, designers and installers alike. We’ve hosted at least one show each month throughout the year, with a total of around 250 visitors to date from the UK and also from overseas.

One of the highlights was a private day for a group of 12 Young Engineers from SoPHE – this new generation of engineers are starting their career at a time when in many regions “the only way is up”. The visit to the test tower offered them the perfect opportunity to gain a good understanding of the specific issues related to drainage ventilation in high rise buildings.

Taking on-board requests from some of our earlier visitors, we made a few changes to the system this year, including an offset in clear pipe, and plan to make more changes soon – watch this space!

If you have any thoughts on what else you’d like to see at the test tower, then please make a suggestion and we can make the changes over the winter when it’s really really cold in the unheated concrete tower – thanks for that! 😉 Seriously, we do welcome all feedback, so please email me at tony.hill@studor.net with any ideas.

On a final note, here’s the quick check list we do before each show:

1) Big tall building to play in.
    Check!big-tower
2) Water.
    Check!
water
3) Supplies.
    Check!
supplies
4) Toilet.
    Check!toilet
5) Lots of toilets.
    Check, check, check!lots-of-toilets

 

 
 
 
6) For the rest you have to be here – after all, “Seeing IS Believing”!

For more information on 2017 dates, to arrange a private day for your PH team, or even to bring your clients to see why the Studor System (incorporating the Studor P.A.P.A. and AAVs) is the ONLY way forward in high rise building drainage, please contact me at tony.hall@studor.net.

Don’t forget, what goes down always comes back up – nice!

down up

 

 

 

 

Other publications relating to our “Seeing is Believing” test tower:

 

 

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World Standards Day: 14 October

14 October, every yWorld Standards Day 2016 Posterear since 1998

Standards – Essential to providing a protective framework

World Standards Day is celebrated by members of the IECISO and ITU as a way of recognising the “collaborative efforts of the thousands of experts worldwide who develop the voluntary technical agreements that are published as international standards”.

Standards are essential to provide a protective framework for products, processes and the environments around us.

In our “The Only Line of Defence” blog we outline why standards are so important in relation to Air Admittance Valves (AAVs). If AAVs do not conform to the required standards then there is a real risk that health could be compromised. This is why Studor has been instrumental in working with international standards organisations to introduce and review relevant standards – this is an area of high importance to us, as health should never knowingly be compromised.

SAI Global is the approvals body responsible for Studor’s Watermark approvals. Their October e-newsletter outlines the ways in which standards build trust:

how-do-standards-build-trust

World Standards Day was first established in 1998 and each year there has been a joint statement published from the presidents of the IEC, ISO and ITU. Please click on the below posters to access the statements from each of the below featured years:

2011

2006

2006

2001

2001

1998

1998

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An Update from Graduate Engineer Iris Jiang

Hands-on practical experience wIris Jiang Graduate Engineerith Eco-Bay and the Studor products:  

On 22 June 2016 graduate engineer Iris Jiang was the focus of that day’s interview in honour of the 2016 National Women in Engineering Day. She has recently returned to Belgium following her first overseas internship with our Thai distributor (Eco-Bay Ltd) and has shared her experience with us:

During my two months internship, the Studor products were the main focus to distribute. I started with a technical overview: looking into the working principle of Mini-Vent, Maxi-Vent, P.A.P.A. and Maxi-Filtra through information provided by Studor, thereafter digging deeper into drainage physics through papers written by Professor John Swaffield and doing experimental stuff with the Maxi-Vent with a see-through cover.

I also accompanied the Eco-Bay team for two months to all their consultancy visits. It’s very interesting to see how culture differences lead to a different work approach. For me, it was a very interesting internship. I love the “simplicity” of how Studor solves venting problems, and I was intrigued by the business approach of Thai people. I’m sure Studor will continue to have growth capacities in developing countries, particularly Asia, since skyscrapers are getting higher and higher there. And since it’s a way to show off their country, I’m sure many more are to follow.

Wishing Studor all the best and thanks to Eco-Bay for a great internship!

Iris Jiang

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