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Building Types

Multi-storey Applications

Drainage Systems and Multi-storey Applications

Studor has world-recognised expertise in venting drainage systems for multi-storey applications and the Studor System is a revolutionary ‘world-first’ system developed to resolve the problems of positive and negative pressures within the drainage systems of multi-storey, high rise residential and commercial developments.

The P.A.P.A. (Positive Air Pressure Attenuator) complements the existing range of Studor Air Admittance Valves (AAVs), providing a specific solution for positive pressure transients in any multi-storey building over 10 storeys high, or even smaller buildings with more complex drainage systems. The Studor System – the combination of Studor AAVs and the Studor P.A.P.A. – can be installed into new building projects or retrofitted.

By referring to the various reference projects featured in our ‘Studor Guide’, you will find CAD drawings, installation guides and much more.

What is the Height of Your Multi-storey Building?

Whether 10 storey, 30 storey, or even the tallest building in the country, Studor has an expert in-house team that can guide you through all the technical issues involved with drainage systems, enabling you to deal with your building project in a professional, efficient and timely way.

What is the Studor P.A.P.A.?

The Studor P.A.P.A. forms part of the Studor System, a complete venting system utilising Studor AAVs, such as the Mini-Vent and Maxi-Vent; the former will protect single fixtures and branches, whilst the latter sits on top of the stacks. The Studor System has brought the design of plumbing venting systems into the 21st century, allowing drainage system architects, consultants and building engineers to simplify their sanitary waste systems with many benefits.

Speak with one of our experts and find out how we can help you specify the right single stack drainage system for your multi-storey building.

Sample Reference Projects

Berlaymont Building, Brussels, Belgium
Berlaymont Building, Brussels, Belgium

The Berlaymont, occasionally nicknamed The Berlaymonster, is a four winged, cross shaped office building in Brussels, Belgium, housing the headquarters of the European Commission, which is the executive of the European Union (EU). First occupied in 1967, the building has been subject to much expansion and renovation work since. It currently provides office space for 3000 officials on 14 floors and has a restaurant able to seat 900.

Installation Description:

Over a thousand Studor Mini-Vents (Mini-KNITS) and Maxi-Vents (KNITS II) were installed as part of the refurbishment works.


The Citadel, Ludgate Hill, Manchester
New Residential - The Citadel, Ludgate Hill, Manchester

The Citadel is a stunning six storey apartment scheme completed in 2004, and the tallest timber framed building in the city of Manchester. Developed by David McLean Homes and constructed by ROK Build, the main contractor. ROK were extremely happy with the service and savings provided by the use of Studor products.

Installation Description:
With 70 Studor P.A.P.A.s and 35 Maxi-Vents used in the design and build of this multi floor residential building, this is a great example of how the Studor AAVs work together with the P.A.P.A. as the Studor System to provide you with a very effective drainage system.

Testimonial:
“The drainage plumbing ventilation system for “The Citadel” has been a great success and we have no complaints whatsoever. We would recommend the use of Studor and the products, and would not hesitate to work with Studor on any future developments.”
Stephen Crosthwaite, Project Surveyor, ROK Build North Limited, UK

Convention Centre, Hyatt Regency Denver,
Colorado, USA
Convention Centre, Hyatt Regency Denver, Colorado, USA

The 35 storey luxury Denver Hyatt Hotel at the Convention Centre in Colarado was a big milestone for Studor in terms of entering into the United States. It was one of the first designed projects to utilise the Studor Single Pipe System within the USA, with the obvious benefits being the space saving and ease of installation; this made Studor the only choice for this project which completed in 2006.

Installation Description:
The Studor P.A.P.A., Studor Maxi-Vents and Studor Tec-Vents were installed within the Studor System, offering design flexibility, greater protection from positive and negative transients, and substantial savings. These were all factored into the decision to utilise Studor's latest innovative technology.


Hospital de Vallecas, Madrid, Spain
Madrid Hospital, Vallecas

In this newly constructed hospital, opened in 2008, all theatres and large meeting rooms are located on the top floor of the 3 storey building. Over 250 Maxi-Vents have allowed no pipe presence or interference in these crucial rooms. The drastic reduction of roof penetration became a real bonus with the design and finish of the building which would not have been possible using traditional open air stacks.

Installation Description:
The drainage system design consists mainly of stacks: no branches. Each stack serves a maximum of 4 bathrooms per floor and toilets are independently linked to the stacks. The concept was to install as many stacks as possible to allow only very short branches. The Maxi-Vent was used on the majority of the stacks, as the stacks have to stop at the second level.

Related Links: Low Rise, Maxi-Vent

The Hub, Milan, Italy
The Hub

The Hub hotel was previously a 20 storey office building. On conversion, the exterior remained original, while the interiors were stripped to accommodate new luxurious suites with large bathrooms. This created an additional demand for drainage without extra room for stack ventilation, whilst also keeping noise levels to a minimum.

Installation Description:
The solution was to fit a combination of Mini-Vents, Trap-Vents, Maxi-Vents and the P.A.P.A., fitting the complete Studor System to the existing drainage system with little intrusive or additional work.


For advice on installing the correct combination of AAVs, the Studor System or other associated Studor products, we have an in-house team that has worked on every type of building across the world. Please contact us or the local distributor in your country for assistance.